лечение рака в германии

Лечение рака в германии

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Лечение рака в Германии, преимущества протонной терапии

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Гастрит – причины, признаки и симптомы

Гастрит – это воспаление слизистого слоя желудка, приводящее к нарушению функций этого органа. При возникновении гастрита пища начинает плохо перевариваться, что приводит к упадку сил и энергии организма. Гастрит, как и большинство болезней, бывает острым и хроническим.

Диета при гастрите

Правильное питание имеет важное значение для профилактики, лечения воспалений желудка. Диета снижает тяжесть болезненных проявлений, повышает эффективность лечебных манипуляций. Дисбаланс компонентов пищи (белков, жиров, углеводов, клетчатки) изменяет рН среды желудка, стимулирует патогенез гастритов, вплоть до язвы желудка.

Список продуктов, трав и народных средств от гастрита

Гастрит, выражающийся в воспалении слизистой оболочки желудка, бывает двух видов: острый и хронический. В первом случае основным симптомом является сильная боль, которая появляется внезапно. Нередко сопровождается тошнотой, рвотой, обезвоживанием, появляется слабость.

Эрозивный гастрит

Заподозрить именно эрозивную форму гастрита только по клиническим признакам и жалобам больного крайне тяжело. Исключение составляют те случаи, когда на фоне подтвержденного гастрита возникает желудочное кровотечение. В подобных ситуациях факт образования эрозий становится очевидным.

Язва желудка – причины, признаки, симптомы и как лечить?

Знание основных симптомов развивающегося патологического процесса, позволит быстрее обратиться к врачу за помощью и диагностировать болезнь, что гарантирует успех терапевтического воздействия без хирургического вмешательства. Однако, иногда болезнь никак...

Source: http://www.ayzdorov.ru/lechenie_gastrita_narsredstva.php




There are a number of different medical approaches to the treatment of leukemia. Treatment will typically depend upon the type of leukemia, the patient's age and health status, as well as whether or not the leukemia cells have spread to the cerebrospinal fluid. The genetic changes or specific characteristics of the leukemia cells as determined in the laboratory can also determine the type of treatment that may be most appropriate.

Watchful waiting may be an option for some people with a chronic leukemia who do not have symptoms. This involves close monitoring of the disease so that treatment can begin when symptoms develop. Watchful waiting allows the patient to avoid or postpone the side effects of treatment. The risk of waiting is that it may eliminate the possibility of controlling the leukemia before it worsens.

Acute leukemia needs to be treated when it is diagnosed, with the goal of inducing a remission (absence of leukemia cells in the body). After remission is achieved, therapy may be given to prevent a relapse of the leukemia. This is called consolidation or maintenance therapy. Acute leukemias can often be cured with treatment.

Chronic leukemias are unlikely to be cured with treatment, but treatments are often able to control the cancer and manage symptoms. Some people with chronic leukemia may be candidates for stem cell transplantation, which does offer a chance for cure.

Many patients opt to receive a second opinion before beginning treatment for leukemia. In most cases, there is time to receive a second opinion and consider treatment options without making the treatment less effective. However, in rare cases of very aggressive leukemias, treatment must begin immediately. Someone should discuss with a doctor the possibility of obtaining a second opinion and any potential delays in treatment. Most doctors welcome the possibility of a second opinion and will not be offended by a patient's wish to obtain one.

Chemotherapy is the administration of drugs that kill rapidly dividing cells such as leukemia or other cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be taken orally in pill or tablet form, or it may be delivered via a catheter or intravenous line directly into the bloodstream. Combination chemotherapy is usually given, which involves a combination of more than one drug. The drugs are given in cycles with rest periods in between.

Biological therapy is any treatment that uses living organisms, substances that come from living organisms, or synthetic versions of these substances to treat cancer. These treatments help the immune system recognize abnormal cells and then attack them. Biological therapies for various types of cancer can include antibodies, tumor vaccines, or cytokines (substances that are produced within the body to control the immune system). Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that react against a specific target that are used in the treatment of many kinds of cancer. An example of a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of leukemia is alemtuzumab, which targets the CD52 antigen, a protein found on B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Interferons are cell signaling chemicals that have been used in the treatment of leukemia.

Targeted therapies are drugs that interfere with one specific property or function of a cancer cell, rather than acting to kill all rapidly growing cells indiscriminately. This means there is less damage to normal cells with targeted therapy than with chemotherapy. Targeted therapies may cause the target cell to cease growing rather than to die, and they interfere with specific molecules that promote growth or spread of cancers. Targeted cancer therapies are also referred to as molecularly targeted drugs, molecularly targeted therapies, or precision medicines.

Radiation therapy uses high energy radiation to target cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be used in the treatment of leukemia that has spread to the brain, or it may be used to target the spleen or other areas where leukemia cells have accumulated.

In stem cell transplantation, high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation are given to destroy leukemia cells along with normal bone marrow. Then, transplant stem cells are delivered by an intravenous infusion. The stem cells travel to the bone marrow and begin producing new blood cells. Stem cells may come from the patient or from a donor.

Autologous stem cell transplantation refers to the situation in which the patient's own stem cells are removed and treated to destroy leukemia cells. They are then returned to the body after the bone marrow and leukemia cells have been destroyed.

An allogeneic stem cells transplant refers to stem cells transplanted from a donor. These may be from a relative or an unrelated donor. A syngeneic stem cell transplant uses stem cells taken from a healthy identical twin of the patient.

Stem cells may be removed (harvested) in different ways. Typically, they are taken from the blood. They can also be harvested from the bone marrow or from umbilical cord blood.

Stem cell transplantation is done in a hospital, and it is necessary to remain in the hospital for several weeks. Risks of the procedure include infections and bleeding due to the depletion of normal blood cells. A risk of stem cell transplant with donor cells is known as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In GVHD, the donor white blood cells react against the patient's normal tissues. GVHD can be mild or very severe, and often affects the liver, skin, or digestive tract. GVHD can occur at any time after the transplant, even years later. Steroids or medications that suppress the immune response may be used to treat this complication.

Because many of the treatments for leukemia deplete normal blood cells, increasing the risk for bleeding and infection, supportive treatments may be needed to help prevent these complications of treatment. Supportive treatments may also be needed to help minimize and manage unpleasant side effects of medical or radiation therapy.

Types of supportive and preventive treatments that can be used for patients undergoing treatment for leukemia include the following:

  • Vaccines against the flu or pneumonia
  • Blood or platelet transfusions
  • Anti-nausea medications
  • Antibiotics or antiviral medications to treat or prevent infections
  • White blood cell growth factors to stimulate white blood cell production (such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor [G-CSF], made up of filgrastim [Neupogen] and pegfilgrastim [Neulasta] and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating growth factor [GM-CSF], made up of sargramostim [Leukine])
  • Red cell growth factors to stimulate red blood cell production (darbepoetin alfa [Aranesp] or epoetin alfa [Procrit])
  • Intravenous injections of immunoglobulins to help fight infection

Source: http://www.medicinenet.com/leukemia/page5.htm



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